Autumn brought us many climate surprises. The weather was significantly affected by anticyclones: the warm Azores anticyclone from September to early November and cold northern anticyclones at the end of the season.
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September 2018 equalled the record of September 2015 as the warmest in the history of meteorological observations. The average temperature of the month (+17.6) was more in line with summer and corresponded to that of June. On September 1, the absolute maximum of the month was updated, and the new value was +33.7°C. Until the middle of the month, the average daily temperature corresponded to the warmest time of the year (late July — early August). Five days of September were record warm.
October also provided a few climate surprises. The middle of the month was sunny and warm. In fact, it was October Indian summer. The combination of sunny weather and golden autumn resulted in an unforgettable, colorful scenery. Four days of the second ten-day period of October updated the maximum temperature records, and the period was record warm. The beginning of the third ten-day period saw cloudy and rainy weather, and pre-winter processes began in the Central Black Earth Region at the end of the month. In addition to rains, some areas of the region saw wet snow, and a temporary snow cover (3-7cm) formed in the northern part of the Tambov region.
November was recognized as the driest in the history of meteorological observations. There was less than one millimeter of precipitation in Voronezh from November 1 to 24.However, at the end of the month, the amount of precipitation increased to 4mm, and November 1919 with 2mm remained record dry. The first below-freezing temperature in Voronezh was recorded on November 2 and the first solid precipitation on November 10. Climatic winter began at the usual time — during the second ten-day period of the month. A light snow cover (2 to 4cm) formed, as usual, at the end of November (on November 26). The end of the month was cold, and the temperature dropped below −20 in Kalach (the Voronezh region) on November 30.
Autumn’s highest temperature (+33.7) was recorded in Voronezh on September 1 and the lowest (-13.0) on November 4. The average temperature of the season (+8.5) was 2.3 degrees above the long-term average (+6.2), so the autumn was warm.
The predominant influence of anticyclones, including blocking ones, affected the frequency and amount of precipitation. Four ten-day periods of autumn were almost dry. But sometimes the lack of moisture was compensated for: the amount of precipitation in the last ten days of September and the last ten days of October was two times above normal. In general, the autumn was dry. The norm stands at 143mn, but there was 87mm of moisture (anomaly of 61%).